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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Annual, biennial, taprooted, glabrous
Stem erect, branched
Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1–3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear-lanceolate to obovate, toothed or lobed
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0–few, very narrow; bractlets several, narrow; rays, pedicels few to ± many, spreading-ascending
Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, greenish yellow or white
Fruit oblong to ovate, slightly compressed side-to-side; ribs thread-like; oil tubes per rib-interval 1; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat
Species in genus: 2 species: Eurasia (1 cultivated, sometimes weedy)
Etymology: (Greek: stone wreath; name used by Dioscorides)


P. crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill


Plant 3–13 dm
Leaf: basal petiole 1–2 dm; basal blade 3–10 cm, ± ovate, 1–3-pinnate; 1° leaflets of lower leaves 2–5 cm, obovate to ovate-lanceolate, toothed, lobed; cauline leaves ± sessile, 1-ternate, leaflets generally linear-lanceolate, entire or 3-lobed
Inflorescence: peduncle 3–8 cm; rays 10–20, 1–5 cm, subequal; pedicels 2–5 mm
Fruit 2–4 mm ± ovate
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Disturbed places near gardens
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: native to Europe

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