Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

APIACEAE

CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.

PASTINACA

PARSNIP

Biennial, perennial herb, taprooted, nearly glabrous to hairy
Stem erect, branched
Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1–2-pinnate, leaflets oblong to ovate
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally 0; rays 5–20, pedicels many, rays and pedicels spreading-ascending
Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, yellow or orange, tips narrowed
Fruit oblong to obovate, very compressed front-to-back; ribs unequal, marginal narrowly winged, others thread-like; oil tubes per rib-interval 1, all equal in length; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat
Species in genus: ± 10 species: Eurasia
Etymology: (Ancient name for parsnip)

Introduced

P. sativa L.

Biennial, 0.5–2 m, nearly glabrous to puberulent
Stem conspicuously angled, grooved
Leaf: petiole 1–1.5 cm; blade 1.5–3 dm, oblong to ovate, 1-pinnate, leaflets 5–11, 5–10 cm, oblong to ovate, coarsely serrate and lobed or divided
Inflorescence: peduncle 7–15 cm
Fruit 4–6 mm wide, oblong to round; oil tubes visible
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Roadsides, etc.
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to e US; native to Eurasia
Sporadic.

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