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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Perennial, taprooted, glabrous to minutely scabrous
Stem erect, leafy, generally fibrous at base, generally branched
Leaf: blade oblong to round, ternately or pinnately compound or dissected, leaflets oblong to obovate, entire to deeply pinnately lobed, segments linear to oblong
Inflorescence: compound umbels; bracts generally 0; bractlets 0 or inconspicuous; rays, pedicels few–many, spreading-ascending
Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white (or pinkish)
Fruit oblong to elliptic, slightly compressed side-to-side; ribs subequal, thread-like to narrowly winged; oil tubes per rib-interval generally several; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat to concave
Species in genus: ± 25 species: Eurasia, North America
Etymology: (Liguria, Italy, home of the related Levisticum, lovage)
Reference: [Leute 1970 Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 74:457–519]
Genus and species poorly defined.


L. apiifolium (Nutt.) A. Gray

Plant 3–15 dm
Leaf: petiole generally 1–3 dm; blade 0.8–2.5 dm wide, triangular-ovate, ternate-pinnate, leaflets 1.5–4.5 cm, ovate, segments obtuse or acute, deeply pinnately lobed, margins minutely scabrous or roughened; cauline leaves ± = basal, generally 2–3, upper subsessile, sometimes paired
Inflorescence generally ± puberulent or roughened; peduncles alternate or whorled, 1–3.5 dm; rays 12–23, 2–6 cm, unequal; pedicels 5–10 mm, unequal
Fruit 3–5 mm, oblong; ribs thread-like to acute, ± unwinged; oil tubes per rib-interval 3–6
Seed: face concave
Chromosomes: 2n=22,44
Ecology: Coastal meadows, scrub or woods
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Horticultural information: DRN: 5 &IRR: 17 &SHD: 15, 16.

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