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APIACEAE

CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.

ERYNGIUM

Biennial, perennial herb, from taproot, clustered roots, or rhizomes, generally glabrous, generally ± spiny
Stem creeping to erect, rooting at nodes, branched or not
Leaves basal and generally also cauline; petioles 0 or present; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected, rarely entire, often sharply toothed or ciliate, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented
Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes, or panicles; bracts in 1 or more series, a single bractlet accompanying each flower; rays, pedicels 0
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent on fruit; petals oblong to ovate, white to blue or purple, tip long; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit obovate to round, not compressed to very compressed front-to-back, densely scaly or tubercled or some surfaces glabrous; ribs 0; oil tubes inconspicuous; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face generally flat
Species in genus: ± 200 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand
Etymology: (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus)
Reference: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]
CA species (sect. Armata ) are generally in vernal pools, polyploid, poorly defined, apparently interbreeding. Basal leaves are described unless stated otherwise.

Native

E. mathiasiae Y. Sheikh

MATHIAS' BUTTON-CELERY

Plant stout, ascending to erect, 3–4 dm, branching from main stem, 1.5–2 cm above basal rosette, glabrous
Leaf: petiole 6–10 cm, blade; blade 10–17 cm, lanceolate to narrowly obovate, sharply serrate to sharply lobed
Inflorescence: heads 8–12 mm, subspheric, in cymes; peduncles 0.8–1.8 cm; bracts 6–7, 13–23 mm, 1.5–2 X heads, linear, densely spiny on both surfaces; bractlets 9–15 mm, 1–1.3 mm wide
Flower: sepals 3–3.5 mm, lanceolate, generally entire; petals oblong, white; styles 2.5–3 mm, ± = sepals
Fruit 2.5–3 mm, oblong; scales dense, unequal, lanceolate, acuminate to awned, smooth or roughened
Chromosomes: 2n=64
Ecology: Roadside ditches, wet depressions
Elevation: 1000–1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Modoc Plateau.

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