|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.
Biennial, perennial herb, from taproot, clustered roots, or rhizomes, generally glabrous, generally ± spiny
Stem creeping to erect, rooting at nodes, branched or not
Leaves basal and generally also cauline; petioles 0 or present; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected, rarely entire, often sharply toothed or ciliate, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented
Inflorescence: heads 1many in cymes, racemes, or panicles; bracts in 1 or more series, a single bractlet accompanying each flower; rays, pedicels 0
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent on fruit; petals oblong to ovate, white to blue or purple, tip long; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit obovate to round, not compressed to very compressed front-to-back, densely scaly or tubercled or some surfaces glabrous; ribs 0; oil tubes inconspicuous; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face generally flat
Species in genus: ± 200 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand
Etymology: (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus)
Reference: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93101]
CA species (sect. Armata ) are generally in vernal pools, polyploid, poorly defined, apparently interbreeding. Basal leaves are described unless stated otherwise.
Plant generally ascending or erect, 19 dm, slender or stout, generally branching loosely from main stem, 25 cm above basal rosette, generally glabrous
Leaf < branch; petiole 527 cm, generally > blade; blade 310 cm, lanceolate to oblanceolate, crenate to coarsely sharply serrate, irregularly cut, or lobed
Inflorescence: heads 512 mm, subspheric, in cymes; peduncles 0.51.5 cm; bracts 58, 627 mm, = to 2 X heads, linear to linear-lanceolate, entire or spine-margined, minutely hairy or roughened; bractlets 510 mm
Flower: sepals 1.72.8 mm, lanceolate to ovate, entire; petals oblanceolate, white; styles 1.53.5 mm, sometimes purplish
Fruit 1.52.5 mm, oblong-ovate; scales dense, unequal, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, roughened
Ecology: Abundant. Vernal pools, ditches, etc.
Elevation: 01000 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, s South Coast, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Fruit: styles >> calyx
Ecology: Vernal pools, lake shores, drying lakes, wet depressions
Elevation: 01000 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area.Most widespread, variable var.; apparently hybridizes with other vars., species
Horticultural information: SUN, IRR: 15, 16, 17.