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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Biennial, perennial herb, from taproot, clustered roots, or rhizomes, generally glabrous, generally ± spiny
Stem creeping to erect, rooting at nodes, branched or not
Leaves basal and generally also cauline; petioles 0 or present; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected, rarely entire, often sharply toothed or ciliate, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented
Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes, or panicles; bracts in 1 or more series, a single bractlet accompanying each flower; rays, pedicels 0
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent on fruit; petals oblong to ovate, white to blue or purple, tip long; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit obovate to round, not compressed to very compressed front-to-back, densely scaly or tubercled or some surfaces glabrous; ribs 0; oil tubes inconspicuous; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face generally flat
Species in genus: ± 200 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand
Etymology: (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus)
Reference: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]
CA species (sect. Armata ) are generally in vernal pools, polyploid, poorly defined, apparently interbreeding. Basal leaves are described unless stated otherwise.


E. alismifolium Greene

Plant low, decumbent to ascending, 0.5–3 dm, branching or spreading directly from basal rosette, glabrous
Leaf > branch; petiole short to = blade; blade 6–15 cm, lanceolate to narrowly obovate, sharply serrate and irregularly cut to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: heads 5–12 mm, spheric, in cymes; peduncles 0.5–1.5 cm; bracts generally 7, 7–16 mm, > heads, linear-lanceolate, sharply ciliate; bractlets 4–8 mm
Flower: sepals 1.5–3 mm, lanceolate, entire; petals oblong, white; styles 3–3.5 mm, 2 X sepals
Fruit 2–2.5 mm, ovate; scales dense, generally subequal, lanceolate, acuminate
Chromosomes: 2n=32
Ecology: Vernal pools, flooded meadows
Elevation: 1300–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Nevada

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