Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
link to manual TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993) previous taxon | next taxon
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

    THIS PAGE IS NO LONGER UPDATED
    AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

APIACEAE

CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.

CICUTA

WATER HEMLOCK

Perennial, glabrous; rhizome divided internally into chambers, with sap that oxidizes to reddish brown, bearing fibrous or tuberous roots
Stem erect, hollow
Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1–3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear to ovate-lanceolate, serrate or irregularly cut
Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally inconspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading
Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white, tips narrowed
Fruit ovate to round, slightly compressed side-to-side; ribs low, corky, sometimes unequally spaced; oil tubes per rib-interval 1; fruit axis divided to base
Seed: face flat or concave
Species in genus: ± 4 species: Eurasia, North America
Etymology: (Ancient Latin name)
Reference: [Mulligan & Munro 1981 Canad J Plant Sci 61:93–105]
More evidence from ripe fruit and chromosomes needed to substantiate proposed cryptic species TOXIC: both species below contain cicutoxin, a virulent poison; many livestock and human deaths recorded. The most lethally toxic native plants.

Native

C. douglasii (DC.) J.M. Coult. & Rose

Plant 15–30 dm
Leaf 1.5–4.5 dm, narrowly ovate to triangular-ovate, 1–2(3)-pinnate; leaflets 1–10(15) cm, linear to widely lanceolate, acute or acuminate, subentire to coarsely serrate, areas surrounded by veins on lower surface coarse, generally some elongate
Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral; peduncles 2–18 cm; rays 15–30(35), 2–8 cm; pedicels 20–30, 2–10 mm
Fruit 2–4 mm, generally round; ribs much wider than intervals between
Chromosomes: 2n=44
Ecology: Wet places, often in water
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, South Coast, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana
Flowering time: Jun–Sep

previous taxon | next taxon
bioregional map for CICUTA%20douglasii being generated
 


Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cicuta douglasii
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cicuta
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
Return to the Jepson Interchange main page
Return to treatment index page
Glossary


University & Jepson Herbaria Home Page |
General Information | University Herbarium | Jepson Herbarium |
Visiting the Herbaria | On-line Resources | Research |
Education | Related Sites
Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California