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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Annual, perennial herb, taprooted, stellate-hairy
Stem decumbent to erect, branched
Leaves opposite to alternate; stipules sometimes slightly fused above node when leaves opposite; blade ovate to round, palmately lobed to compound, rarely subentire
Inflorescence: umbels simple, few-flowered, peduncled or sessile; bracts generally present; pedicels short to 0
Flower: calyx lobes generally 0; petals generally wide, yellowish white, green, or purple, obtuse to acutish, tip not narrowed, not incurved
Fruit ovate-oblong to round, cylindric or ± 4-angled or slightly compressed front-to-back, stellate-hairy, prickly, or nearly glabrous; ribs obscure; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face ± flat
Species in genus: 16 species: temp South America, 1 in CA
Etymology: (Wm. Bowles, Irish writer on Spanish natural history, 1705–1780)
Reference: [Mathias & Constance 1965 Univ Calif Publ Bot 38]

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