Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ANACARDIACEAE

SUMAC or CASHEW FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken

Shrub, tree, generally dioecious or flowers bisexual and unisexual, ± resinous, sometimes milky, generally aromatic
Leaves simple or compound, alternate, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flowers generally many
Flower generally unisexual, radial; sepals 5, base generally ± fused; petals 5, generally > sepals, free; stamens 5 or 10, reduced and sterile in pistillate flowers; ovary superior, vestigial or 0 in staminate flowers, subtended by ± lobed, disk-like nectary, chamber generally 1, ovule generally 1, styles 1–3
Fruit drupe-like, glabrous, sticky, or short-hairy; pulp ± resinous, sometimes aromatic
Genera in family: 70+ genera, ± 850 species: tropical, warm temp; some ornamental (Rhus, Schinus ), some cultivated for fruit (Anacardium , cashew; Mangifera , mango)
Reference: [Brizicky 1962 J Arnold Arbor 43:359–375]
TOXIC: many genera produce contact dermatitis.

PISTACIA

PISTACHIO

Shrub, tree, dioecious
Leaves pinnate; leaflets 3–16; lateral generally opposite, membranous, entire to toothed, deciduous
Inflorescence: panicle, axillary or terminal, open to dense
Flower: perianth parts bract-like, generally 1–7, unequal, early deciduous; stamens 4–7, vestigial in pistillate flowers; styles 3, fused at base, generally 0 in staminate flower
Fruit spheric to obovoid; pulp fleshy
Species in genus: ± 11 species: Medit, e Asia, Mex
Etymology: (Ancient Arabic or Persian name)
Reference: [Zohary 1952 Palestine J. Bot 5:187–228]
P. vera , pistachio, generally with 3 leaflets, widely cultivated for food.

Introduced

P. atlantica Desf.

Tree 3–10 m
Stem: branches spreading to erect
Leaf odd-pinnate; axis winged; leaflets 7–9, tip acute to obtuse
Fruit 6–8 mm, ± obovoid
Ecology: Flats, roadsides, drainages
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sacramento Valley, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean
Cult for ornamental, escaping; used as rootstock for P. vera. Plants from e ScV and n SNF, with even-pinnate leaves, leaf axis cylindric, leaflets 10–14, are P. chinensis Bunge.

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