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CHENOPODIACEAE

GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual to tree, sometimes monoecious or dioecious, glandular or with bead-like hairs that collapse with age, becoming scaly or powdery
Stem often fleshy
Leaves generally alternate, entire to lobed; veins generally pinnate
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, or spheric cluster, or flower 1; bracts 0–few
Flower: sepals 1–5, often 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused, generally persistent in fruit; petals 0; stamens 0–5; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, styles 1–3
Fruit: generally utricle
Seed 1, vertical (fruit compressed side-to-side) or horizontal (fruit compressed top-to-bottom)
Genera in family: 100 genera, 1300 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta , beets, chard; Chenopodium , quinoa)
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated in expanded Amaranthaceae

CHENOPODIUM

PIGWEED, GOOSEFOOT

Annual or perennial herb, glabrous, glandular, or powdery
Stem: branches 0 to generally ± spreading
Leaves generally petioled, linear to deltate, entire to lobed, reduced upward; base generally tapered
Inflorescence: spheric clusters, spikes, or panicle-like, generally dense; bracts generally 0; flowers generally sessile
Flower: calyx segments generally 5, fused or not, persistent, flat to keeled; stamens generally 5; ovary lenticular to spheric, stigmas 2–5
Seed vertical or horizontal, red-brown to black; wall very thin
Species in genus: ± 150 species: temp; some cultivated for food or grain
Etymology: (Greek: goose foot, from leaf shape of some)
Reference: [Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46; Crawford 1975 Brittonia 27:279–288]
Fr generally required for identification.

Introduced

C. pumilio R. Br.

Annual 12–25 cm, ± strong-smelling
Leaf: blade 4–20 mm, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately toothed to lobed, gray-glandular-puberulent (especially below); base generally wedge-shaped
Inflorescence 3–6 mm diam, axillary, ± spheric, dense
Flower: sepals weakly enclosing fruit, generally keeled, yellow-glandular; stamens 1–3
Fruit ± 1 mm diam; wall free from seed
Seed vertical
Ecology: Disturbed places
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to e US, n Mexico; native to Australia

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