Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Ronald L. Hartman (except Silene)

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, rarely dioecious, taprooted or rhizome generally slender
Leaves simple, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0; blade entire, sheath generally 0
Inflorescence: cyme, generally open; flowers few–many or flower solitary and axillary; involucre generally 0
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium sometimes present; sepals generally 5, ± free or fused into a tube, tube generally herbaceous between lobes or teeth; awns generally 0; petals generally 5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, blade expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, blade generally without scale-like appendages (inner surface), generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries generally 0; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 or 1 and 2–3-branched
Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely modified, dehiscent), generally sessile
Seeds: appendage generally 0
Genera in family: 85 genera, 2400 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temp, n hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria ).


Annual, erect, taprooted
Leaf: blade linear to awl-shaped; veins 3
Inflorescence axillary; flower generally solitary; pedicels 1.5–3.5 mm
Flower: sepals 5, fused, tube prominent, 10–14 mm, 0.8–1 mm diam, narrowly cylindric, rounded, ribs 15, teeth 1–1.2 mm, < tube, lanceolate-acuminate; petals 5, 11–16 mm, claw long, blade entire or notched, appendages 6–8, linear to lanceolate; stamens 5; styles 2, 7–8 mm
Fruit: capsule, narrowly cylindric; stalk 0.2–0.7 mm; teeth 4, ascending
Seeds 6–8, black
Species in genus: 6 species: Medit, s Asia
Etymology: (C. Velez, friend of botanist Loefling, 18th century)


V. rigida L.

Plant 7–40 cm, glandular-hairy at least above
Stem: branches widely spreading or repeatedly 2-forked, rigid, green to purplish
Leaf 5–20 mm; margin ciliate, scarious near and fused at base
Flower: calyx base swollen, hardened; petals, narrowly obovate, pink to purple, appendages 0.4–0.6 mm
Fruit: tip rounded
Seeds in a single row, 1.3–1.8 mm, ovate-oblong, with abrupt, rounded point; papillae fine, low
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Oak woodlands, open ridges, gravelly streambeds, serpentine
Elevation: 100–800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
Distribution outside California: native to s Europe

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