Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Ronald L. Hartman (except Silene)

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, rarely dioecious, taprooted or rhizome generally slender
Leaves simple, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0; blade entire, sheath generally 0
Inflorescence: cyme, generally open; flowers few–many or flower solitary and axillary; involucre generally 0
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium sometimes present; sepals generally 5, ± free or fused into a tube, tube generally herbaceous between lobes or teeth; awns generally 0; petals generally 5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, blade expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, blade generally without scale-like appendages (inner surface), generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries generally 0; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 or 1 and 2–3-branched
Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely modified, dehiscent), generally sessile
Seeds: appendage generally 0
Genera in family: 85 genera, 2400 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temp, n hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria ).



Annual, perennial herb, erect to sprawling; taprooted
Leaf: stipules 1–11 mm, lanceolate and acuminate to widely triangular, scarious, ± entire or splitting ± at tip, white to tan; blade thread-like to linear; vein 1
Inflorescence: generally cyme, terminal, few–many-flowered, open to dense; pedicels 0.5–28+ mm
Flower: sepals 5, ± free, 1.5–10 mm, lanceolate to ovate, glabrous to glandular-hairy; petals 5, 0.6–9 mm, entire; stamens 2–10; styles 3, 0.3–1.9 mm
Fruit: capsule, ovoid; valves 3, spreading with tip recurved
Seeds few–many, dark brown, reddish brown, or black
Species in genus: 40 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: derivative of Spergula )
Reference: [Rossbach 1940 Rhodora 42:57–83,105–143,158–193,203–213]


S. macrotheca (Hornem.) Heynh.

Plant strongly perennial herb, stout
Stem: lower main 0.8–3 mm diam
Leaf fleshy; axillary cluster 0 or 1–2+-leaved; stipules 4.5–11 mm, narrowly triangular, dull white to tan, ± conspicuous, tip long-acuminate
Inflorescence simple or 1–3+ X compound or flower axillary, solitary; glandular-hairy
Flower: sepals fused 0.5–1.8 mm, lobes 4.5–7 mm, < 8 mm in fruit; petals white or pink to rosy; stamens 9–10; styles 0.5–3 mm
Fruit 4.6–10 mm, 0.8–1.4 X calyx
Seed 0.6–0.9 mm, ± reddish brown, generally winged; surface smooth, tubercled, or sculpture worm-like or of low rounded mounds, not papillate
Chromosomes: 2n=36,72
Ecology: Alkaline marshes, meadows, fields, salt flats, mud flats, coastal bluffs, outcrops
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Inner North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Channel Islands, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California

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