Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Ronald L. Hartman (except Silene)

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, rarely dioecious, taprooted or rhizome generally slender
Leaves simple, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0; blade entire, sheath generally 0
Inflorescence: cyme, generally open; flowers few–many or flower solitary and axillary; involucre generally 0
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium sometimes present; sepals generally 5, ± free or fused into a tube, tube generally herbaceous between lobes or teeth; awns generally 0; petals generally 5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, blade expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, blade generally without scale-like appendages (inner surface), generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries generally 0; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 or 1 and 2–3-branched
Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely modified, dehiscent), generally sessile
Seeds: appendage generally 0
Genera in family: 85 genera, 2400 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temp, n hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria ).


Annual, erect, taprooted
Leaf: base sheathing, 1–9+ mm; blade linear to linear-lanceolate; veins 3
Inflorescence: cyme, terminal, head-like; flowers few–several; involucral bracts 2–6 per flower, widely ovate; pedicels 0–3 mm, concealed
Flower: sepals 5, fused, glabrous to sparsely, minutely hairy, tube prominent, 8–13 mm, 1–2 mm diam, cylindric, scarious between teeth, veins 5–15, teeth 0.5–1.8 mm, < tube, rounded; petals 5, 10–14 mm, claw long, blade entire or 2-lobed; styles 2, 9–12 mm
Fruit: capsule, ovoid; stalk 0.2–0.7 mm; valves 4, ascending to recurved
Seeds many, blackish brown to black
Species in genus: 20 species: Medit to s Asia
Etymology: (Greek: rock fissure, from habitat of some species)
Reference: [Rabeler 1985 Sida 11:6–44]


P. dubia (Raf.) G. Lopez & Romo

Annual, erect, 9.5–60 cm
Stem: middle internodes often densely glandular-tomentose
Leaf: sheath 2–3 X as long as wide, (3)4–9 mm; blade 10–60 mm, linear to oblong, lowermost oblanceolate
Inflorescence head-like; bracts abruptly pointed
Flower: petals 2-lobed, sometimes obcordate, pink or pinkish, veins 5–6, dark
Seed 1–1.4 mm; surface conic-papillate
Chromosomes: 2n=30
Ecology: Disturbed areas, woodland savanna
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: native to s Europe
Synonyms: Kohlrauschia velutina (Guss.) Reichb

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