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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Ronald L. Hartman (except Silene)

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, rarely dioecious, taprooted or rhizome generally slender
Leaves simple, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0; blade entire, sheath generally 0
Inflorescence: cyme, generally open; flowers few–many or flower solitary and axillary; involucre generally 0
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium sometimes present; sepals generally 5, ± free or fused into a tube, tube generally herbaceous between lobes or teeth; awns generally 0; petals generally 5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, blade expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, blade generally without scale-like appendages (inner surface), generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries generally 0; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 or 1 and 2–3-branched
Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely modified, dehiscent), generally sessile
Seeds: appendage generally 0
Genera in family: 85 genera, 2400 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temp, n hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria ).



Annual, perennial herb, erect to mat-forming; taproot or rhizomes present
Leaf: blade linear to ovate; vein 1
Inflorescence: cyme, terminal or axillary; flowers few–many, open to tightly dense; pedicels 1–36+ mm
Flower: sepals 5, 3.5–12 mm, free, lanceolate to ovate, hairy to glandular-hairy; petals 0 or 5, 2.5–15 mm, ± 2-lobed; stamens (5)10; styles 5, 0.5–3.3 mm
Fruit: capsule, cylindric, ± curved in upper 1/2; teeth 10, spreading to recurved
Seeds several–many, pale brown to reddish brown
Species in genus: 60 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: horn, from fruit shape)


C. glomeratum Thuill.


Annual 3–40 cm, hairy (± glandular)
Stem: flowering stems ascending to erect
Leaves: those on flower stem 5–35 mm, lanceolate or oblanceolate to ovate; axillary leaf clusters 0
Inflorescence: bracts herbaceous; pedicels generally 0.5–0.9 X sepals, (except lowest)
Flower: calyx 3.5–5 mm, glandular-hairy, also with some long, non-glandular hairs 0.2–0.8 mm > tip, scarious margin of most outer sepals < 0.1 mm wide; petals 1.5 mm < to 1 mm > sepals, often 0 on lateral branches
Fruit 3.5–8 mm
Seed 0.4–0.6 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=72
Ecology: Dry hillsides, grasslands, chaparral, disturbed areas
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except s High Sierra Nevada)
Distribution outside California: native to Europe
Synonyms: C. viscosum L. misapplied

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