Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

CAMPANULACEAE

BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.

TRIODANIS

VENUS LOOKING-GLASS

Annual; roots fibrous; hairs sparse, stiff, backward-pointing
Stem erect, simple or branched from base, generally 5–40 cm, 4-angled
Leaves cauline, thin, serrate, sessile
Inflorescence: flowers solitary to several in axils of leaf-like bracts, sessile
Flowers: lower cleistogamous; sepals spreading, narrowly triangular, not leaf-like; corolla rotate, lobes deep blue to blue-violet; stamen bases wide, ciliate; ovary inferior, elliptic to obovoid, upper 50% papillate
Fruit dehiscing by lateral pores
Seed ± 0.5 mm, widely elliptic in outline
Species in genus: 7–8 species: North America, 1 Medit
Etymology: (Greek: 3 teeth)
Reference: [McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13–52]

Native

T. perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.


Leaf generally 8–11 mm, round-cordate; veins on lower surface conspicuous; base generally clasping stem; tip blunt
Flowers opening in most upper bract axils (lower flowers cleistogamous); ovary 5–10 mm, oblong to obovoid; corolla 8–10 mm, lobes 6–8 mm; stamens 3.5 mm; style 4.5 mm
Fruit: pores near or below middle
Ecology: Disturbed areas
Elevation: < ± 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas Co.), Southwestern California (uncommon)
Distribution outside California: to e US, S.America

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