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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.


Nancy R. Morin and Jennifer Milburn

Annual; roots fibrous
Stems erect or spreading, simple or branched at base or below middle
Leaves basal; petiole short or 0
Inflorescence ± raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like
Flower inverted; sepals linear to triangular; corolla nearly radial and 5-lobed or 2-lipped (upper lip 3-lobed, lower lip 2-lobed); filaments free at base, fused into tube above, sometimes appendaged at tube base, anthers free, all alike; ovary generally half-inferior in fruit, sometimes 0, hemispheric to obconic, sometimes glandular, stigma 2-lobed, papillate
Fruit generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform; tip pointed or rounded, dehiscing at tip by 2 valves; chambers 2
Seed elliptic to oblong
Species in genus: 13 species: sw US, nw Mex
Etymology: (Greek: thread-like branch)
Reference: [McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A: 1–134]


N. twisselmannii J.T. Howell


Stems forming small cushions, 0.5–1 cm; base dull, reddish brown
Leaf 2–3 mm, ± spoon-shaped, narrowed to wide petiole, entire, hairy
Inflorescence ± head-like; axis obscure; bracts 1–1.5 mm, oblong, flat; pedicels 2–4 mm, 0.2 mm diam, erect, straight
Flower: hypanthium 0.5 mm; sepals ± 1 mm, linear, erect; corolla 1–3 mm, divided 1/2 length, white, hairy, lobes erect; filament tube 0.5 mm, tip slightly curved, glabrous, anthers 0.3 mm; ovary 2/3 inferior in fruit
Fruit ± 3.5 mm, hemispheric (base rounded, tip ± pointed)
Seed 0.7–0.8 mm, elliptic to elliptic-oblong; surface with deeply impressed, vertical lines crossed by fine transverse lines
Ecology: Granitic sands, rocks, yellow-pine forest
Elevation: 2450 m.
Bioregional distribution: s High Sierra Nevada (n Kern Co.).
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for NEMACLADUS%20twisselmannii being generated

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