Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

CAMPANULACEAE

BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.

LOBELIA

Tina Ayers

Perennial, glabrous or hairy
Leaves mostly basal or all cauline, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, linear-lanceolate to elliptic, sessile; margin with small, gland-tipped teeth
Inflorescence: raceme
Flower inverted in full bloom by twisted pedicel; corolla red or blue, rarely white, tube entire or with an upper sinus, limb strongly 2-lipped, 2 lobes of upper lip < 3 of lower; stamens fused, generally 2 smaller anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 sometimes triangular or horn-like, others linear, shorter; ovary ± spheric, chambers 2, placentas 2, axile
Fruit dehiscent by 2 valves at tip
Species in genus: ± 350 species: ± worldwide
Etymology: (Matthias de l'Obel, Flemish botanist, 1538–1616)
Fl part positions (upper, next to stem; lower, away from stem) given at full bloom.

Native

L. cardinalis L. var. pseudosplendens McVaugh

CARDINAL FLOWER


Stem erect, 4–20 dm, < 1.5 cm diam, purple-red
Flower: corolla red, rarely white, glabrous, tube 15–20 mm, from upper sinus to base; anther tube 3.5–4.5 mm, triangular bristle at tips of 2 shorter anthers 0
Chromosomes: n=7
Ecology: Stream bottoms
Elevation: 450–1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains (Panamint Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to w Texas, Mexico
Flowering time: Aug–Oct
Incl by McVaugh in subsp. graminea (Lam.) McVaugh, with 3 other vars. including var. multiflora (Paxton) McVaugh (plants with dense, short hairs throughout; leaves lanceolate to ovate, probably not in CA). Seriously TOXIC, especially when used as a home remedy
Horticultural information: TRY.

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