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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.



Annual, glabrous to hairy; roots fibrous
Stem erect, simple or branched, 2–40 cm, 4-angled
Leaves cauline, widely linear to ovate, serrate, sessile
Inflorescence: flowers generally solitary, terminal
Flower pedicelled or not; sepals 0.5–3 X ovary, linear to narrowly triangular; corolla cylindric, funnel-, or bell-shaped, throat white, lobes linear to widely ovate, white to deep purple; ovary inferior, obconic to cylindric and narrowed near middle
Fruit dehiscing at top, through opening formed when style base falls off
Seeds ± 1 mm, angular-fusiform
Species in genus: 4 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: Githago -like)
Reference: [Morin 1983 Syst Bot 8:436–468]


G. specularioides Nutt.

Plant glabrous to hairy
Stem erect, 2–40 cm
Leaf 4–20 mm; bracts 3–12 mm, > 5 mm apart, lanceolate to oblong
Flower: pedicel rarely 0; sepals 1–3 X ovary; corolla 4.5–14 mm, 2 X longer than wide at level of sinuses, funnel-shaped, lobes < to ± = tube, deep blue; filament bases narrow, sparsely ciliate; ovary 4–14 mm, obconic, ± 3 X longer than wide at top, top ± narrowed, base long-tapered, ribs 10, equal, style 2.5–6.5 mm, upper 50% papillate
Chromosomes: n=19,20
Ecology: Chaparral, oak woodlands
Elevation: 70–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, s Inner South Coast Ranges (San Luis Obispo, Kern cos.), e South Coast (San Bernardino Co.)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Synonyms: G. calycina Benth

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