Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Reed C. Rollins, except as specified

Annual to subshrub
Leaves generally basal and cauline, alternate, generally simple; stipules 0
Inflorescence: generally raceme
Flower bisexual; sepals 4, free; petals (0)4, free, generally white or yellow, often clawed; stamens generally (2,4)6, generally 4 long, 2 short; ovary 1, superior, chambers generally 2, septum membranous, connecting 2 parietal placentas, style 1, stigma simple or 2-lobed
Fruit: generally capsule ("silique") with 2 deciduous valves, sometimes breaking transversely or indehiscent
Seeds 1–many per chamber
Genera in family: 300+ genera, 3000+ species: worldwide, especially cool regions; some cultivated for food (especially Brassica, Raphanus ) and ornamental
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Capparaceae [Rodman et al. 1993 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80:686–699; Rollins 1993 Cruciferae of Continental North America. Stanford Univ Press]
Family description, key to genera by Robert A. Price.

SISYMBRIUM

Annual, biennial; hairs simple or 0
Stem generally erect, branched
Leaves petioled or sessile, variously lobed or dissected, green or glaucous
Inflorescence many-flowered; bracts 0
Flower: sepals erect to ± spreading; petals yellow, clawed
Fruit ascending to erect, linear to ± awl-shaped, generally cylindric, straight to ± curved, hairy or not; valves prominently veined; style conic or 0, stigma 2-lobed
Seeds many, generally 1 row per chamber; margin 0; not or ± gelatinous when wet; embryonic root at back of 1 cotyledon, sometimes obliquely so
Species in genus: ± 90 species: most continents
Etymology: (Greek: for various mustards)

Introduced

S. altissimum L.

TUMBLE or JIM HILL MUSTARD

Annual
Stem 30–150 cm; branches many, especially above
Leaves petioled, < 15 cm, widely lanceolate; basal, lower cauline ± pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, lobes or leaflets ± lanceolate, dentate; upper with thread-like to linear lobes or leaflets, terminal ± = lateral
Flower: sepals ± 4 mm, outer 2 with erect horns at tip; petals 6–8 mm, pale yellow
Fruit 5–10 cm, ± 1 mm wide, linear, rigid, branch-like; beak 0; pedicel generally spreading, 4–10 mm, width ± = or > fruit width
Seeds many, ± 1 mm; embryonic root obliquely at back of 1 cotyledon
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fields, roadsides
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: N.America; native to Europe
Flowering time: May–Jul

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