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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Reed C. Rollins, except as specified

Annual to subshrub
Leaves generally basal and cauline, alternate, generally simple; stipules 0
Inflorescence: generally raceme
Flower bisexual; sepals 4, free; petals (0)4, free, generally white or yellow, often clawed; stamens generally (2,4)6, generally 4 long, 2 short; ovary 1, superior, chambers generally 2, septum membranous, connecting 2 parietal placentas, style 1, stigma simple or 2-lobed
Fruit: generally capsule ("silique") with 2 deciduous valves, sometimes breaking transversely or indehiscent
Seeds 1–many per chamber
Genera in family: 300+ genera, 3000+ species: worldwide, especially cool regions; some cultivated for food (especially Brassica, Raphanus ) and ornamental
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Capparaceae [Rodman et al. 1993 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 80:686–699; Rollins 1993 Cruciferae of Continental North America. Stanford Univ Press]
Family description, key to genera by Robert A. Price.

CARDAMINE

BITTER-CRESS, TOOTHWORT

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, from taproots, fibrous roots, or tuber-like rhizomes; hairs 0 or simple
Leaves entire or palmately or pinnately lobed to compound; rhizome leaves often present, separate from others
Inflorescence bracted or not
Flower: sepals equal at base; petals white to pink or rose
Fruit linear, generally flat; valves generally opening elastically, sometimes by coiling from base; septum margins intruding on valves
Seeds many, 1 row per chamber, wingless (± margined in C. oligosperma); embryonic root at edges of both cotyledons
Species in genus: ± 170 species: most temp parts of world
Etymology: (Greek: for a cress with medicinal uses)

Native

C. californica (Nutt.) Greene

MILK MAIDS, TOOTH WORT

Perennial; rhizome < 2 cm, tuber-like; hairs 0, rarely minute, simple
Stem 20–70 cm
Leaves: leaflets or lobes of cauline leaves entire to wavy or dentate; leaflets or lobes of rhizome leaves generally 3, 2–6 cm wide, ovate to ± cordate; cauline leaves alternate, lower long-petioled, upper short-petioled to ± sessile, leaflets or lobes 3–5, widely ovate to oblong
Inflorescence elongate in fruit
Flower: petals 9–14 mm, white to pale rose
Fruit erect, 20–50 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide; pedicel ascending, 10–30 mm; style 3–6 mm
Ecology: Generally shaded sites, canyons, woods
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Synonyms: Dentaria c. Nutt

Native

var. californica


Stem: hairs 0, rarely simple
Leaves generally thin; rhizome generally with 3 leaflets, rarely with 5 or simple, entire, leaflet stalks < blades; cauline leaflets or lobes ± 3, generally sharply toothed
Chromosomes: 2n=16,32
Ecology: Common. Shady slopes, wooded ravines, cliffs, shaded rock crevices
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Horticultural information: SHD, DRN, IRR: 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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bioregional map for CARDAMINE%20californica%20var.%20californica being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cardamine californica var. californica
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cardamine
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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