|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, variously hairy, ± taprooted; rhizome generally 0
Stem spreading to prostrate
Leaves cauline, alternate, generally clustered, evergreen, petioled; margin rolled under, entire or ± crenate
Inflorescence ± axillary; flowers solitary or clustered, sessile
Flower: calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, not enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, generally ± funnel-shaped, tube yellow when young, appendages 0; style branches 2
Fruit: nutlets 14, sometimes ± tubercled
Species in genus: 27 species: w hemisphere deserts
Etymology: (native South America. name for flower)
Reference: [Richardson 1977 Rhodora 79:467572]
Separated from Coldenia of e hemisphere.
Perennial, ± woody; bark white
Stem: branches opposite; hairs ± shaggy
Leaves clustered, grayish strigose; blade 3.511 mm, ovate to round, margin ± crenate, veins 23 pairs, shallowly sunken, ± 45° from midvein
Inflorescence bracted; flowers clustered
Flower: calyx 23.5 mm, free ± 1/2 length, hairs within short or 0; corolla 59 mm, 45 mm wide, blue, purple, or lavender; style > calyx, branched 1/2 from tip
Fruit deeply 4-lobed
Seed spheric, smooth, shiny
Ecology: Sandy gravel soils
Elevation: < 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Desert (especially w edge Sonoran Desert and near Colorado River)
Distribution outside California: sw Nevada, w Arizona, n Mexico
Flowering time: AprJun
Synonyms: Coldenia p. A. Gray
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|