|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, perennial herb, generally strigose
Stem prostrate to erect, branched at base or above, < 5 dm
Leaves simple, 0.510 cm, generally smaller upward; all cauline (lower opposite, linear to oblong, upper generally alternate) or both basal (often in rosettes) and cauline (alternate, linear to oblanceolate)
Inflorescence: raceme or spike, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0many; pedicels generally 01 mm
Flower bisexual; sepals fused below middle, 210 mm in fruit; corolla 112 mm wide, all white or yellow inside tube
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, 13.5 mm; back generally with midrib, lateral ribs, cross-ribs, interspaces, generally tubercled, sometimes prickled or bristled; scar generally lateral (on side) near middle or base, sometimes basal (on bottom) or oblique (between side and bottom), sometimes on a stalk or short peg, generally ovate to triangular
Species in genus: ± 65 species: temp w North America, w South America
Etymology: (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar)
Reference: [Higgins 1974 Great Basin Natur 34(2):161166; Johnson 1932 Contr Arnold Abroretum 3:1102]
Fully mature nutlets critical for identification; intergradation common in some species groups; sect. Allocarya often treated as a separate genus; many species need further study.
Annual, tomentose; some hairs spreading, long, rough or sparse; sap purple
Stem erect, 36 dm
Leaves: basal in loose, persistent rosette, 28 cm; cauline alternate
Inflorescence: bracts 0few, near base
Flower: calyx 56 mm; corolla 34 mm wide
Fruit: nutlets 24, 2.53 mm, triangular-ovoid, ± narrowed below tip; cross-ribs narrow, straight; interspaces wide; scar lateral near middle, ± round, deeply concave
Ecology: Common. Woodlands, grasslands, sandy or gravelly soil
Elevation: < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Chile
North America plants have been called var. campestris (Greene) I.M. Johnst
Horticultural information: TRY.