|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual or perennial herb, glabrous to rough-hairy; roots generally diffuse
Stem decumbent to erect
Leaves: basal generally oblong or oblanceolate; cauline generally linear to elliptic
Inflorescence coiled, generally raceme-like, eventually ± open; bracts 0 (or leaf-like in lower half); flowers generally in upper half of plant
Flower: calyx lobes 5, generally ± equal; corolla salverform or widely funnel-shaped, white, yellow, or generally blue, tube 5-appendaged at top, limb abruptly spreading, 5-lobed; stamens 5, included; style generally included
Fruit: nutlets smooth, shiny, each with raised outer margin, scar lateral, at base, small
Species in genus: 50 species: temp, boreal
Etymology: (Greek: mouse ear, from leaf)
Reference: [Grau 1964 Osterr Bot Zeitschr 111:561617]
Generally flowers in spring.
Annual, biennial, short-lived perennial herb
Stem slender, weak, often decumbent but base not creeping or stolon-like, 14 dm, ± strigose
Leaves 1.58 cm, 315 mm wide; basal oblanceolate; cauline oblong to lanceolate
Inflorescence bracted at base; pedicel in fruit spreading, > calyx
Flower: calyx 38 mm, closely but not densely strigose, tube ± = or < lobes, lobes equal or not, narrowly triangular; corolla blue, limb 25 mm diam, ± flat
Fruit < 2 mm, > style, brown to black
Ecology: Moist soil, shallow water
Elevation: 02000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (Del Norte Co.), Sierra Nevada (El Dorado, Kern cos.)
Distribution outside California: ± circumboreal
Highly localized in CA
Horticultural information: WET: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17.