|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Perennial from branched caudex, glabrous to coarsely hairy
Stem ± erect
Leaves cauline and generally basal, alternate, generally petioled (upper generally sessile)
Inflorescence: cyme, generally panicle- or raceme-like; bracts 0
Flower: calyx generally deeply lobed; corolla blue, generally abruptly expanded at throat, limb often ± cylindric or flared; filaments often ± flat, generally attached ± below obvious corolla appendages, anthers included
Fruit: nutlets generally wrinkled, each attached near or below middle to convex receptacle
Species in genus: ± 50 species: North America, temp Eurasia
Etymology: (F.C. Mertens, Germany, 17641831)
Reference: [Milek 1988 PhD U Northern Colorado; Strachan 1988 PhD U Montana]
Hybrids common; identification sometimes difficult, especially in MP.
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.
Plant generally < 4 dm, glabrous to strigose
Stems many, firmly attached to stout, deep, sometimes fleshy caudex
Leaves: basal generally well developed; cauline generally 2.57 X longer than wide, lateral veins obscure, lower leaves generally petioled
Inflorescence ± panicle-like, generally dense
Flower: corolla 1020 mm, tube generally 1.32 X longer than limb, sometimes with ring of hairs inside; filaments wide, ± = anthers; style ± included
Ecology: Open slopes, drier meadows, generally spring-moist places, especially with sagebrush
Elevation: 10003000 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Wyoming, Colorado
Polyploid complex (2n=24,48); CA vars. sometimes found together in Wrn.
Stem generally < 20 cm
Leaf glabrous, sometimes bumpy
Flower: corolla tube glabrous inside
Ecology: Habitats and elev. generally of sp
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains, n East of Sierra Nevada (Sweetwater Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to e Oregon, Idaho, Colorado
Flowering time: AprJun
Most common var. in CA.