Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.



Ronald B. Kelley

Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted
Stem erect
Leaves generally cauline, ± sessile, entire
Inflorescence: bracted cymes, open panicles, or flowers solitary in upper leaf axils
Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed, enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally ± yellow, appendages present or not; style entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, 3–6 mm, smooth to pitted or wrinkled
Species in genus: 75 species: worldwide, generally temp or mtn
Etymology: (Greek: stone seed)
Reference: [Baker 1961 Rhodora 63:229–235]


L. californicum A. Gray

Perennial; hairs spreading, ± coarse; caudex ± woody
Stems 1–several, 1.5–4 dm, clustered, ± branched
Leaves ± few; blade 2.5–5 cm, oblong to lance-ovate
Inflorescence: open panicles ± few (or flowers solitary in upper leaf axils); pedicels 4–7 mm, recurved in fruit
Flower: corolla 12–18 mm, 1.5–2 X calyx, 7–9 mm wide, salverform to funnel-shaped, yellow, unappendaged, lobes entire
Fruit: nutlets smooth, shiny, white
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Open, dry slopes, yellow-pine forests, pine/oak woodland, chaparral
Elevation: 250–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains(?)
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Heterostylous; cleistogamous flowers 0
Horticultural information: DRN: 6, 17 &IRR: 7, 15, 16; DFCLT.

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