Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.



Ronald B. Kelley

Annual, hairy, taprooted
Stem ± erect; branches 0–many
Leaves basal and cauline, sessile, entire
Inflorescence: raceme, long, ± terminal; bracts leaf-like
Flower: calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped, appendages present; style entire
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ovate, covered with ± long, barbed prickles
Species in genus: 12–14 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: little bur)


L. squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.

Stem 1.5–8 dm
Leaf 2–5 cm, linear to oblong
Inflorescence: pedicel 1–3 mm
Flower: calyx 2.5–3 mm in fruit, lobes widely linear, spreading in fruit; corolla 2–4 mm wide, blue
Fruit: nutlets 3–4 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=48
Ecology: Moist, disturbed, cultivated soils, weedy, urban areas
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast (Santa Monica, Upland)
Distribution outside California: native to Eurasia
Synonyms: L. echinata Gilib

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