|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Latin: small grappling hook, from calyx spines)
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem ascending to erect, 330 cm
Inflorescence: pedicels in fruit 0.51 mm, twisted
Flower: sepals in fruit > nutlets, upper 2 >> others, partly fused, arched over 1 nutlet, ± bur-like, with 510 stout spines, each with hooked bristles, lower 3 sepals distinct
Fruit: nutlets 2, 14 mm, dissimilar, ± oblanceolate, margins entire
Ecology: Dry sites in chaparral, coastal scrub, grassland
Elevation: < 450 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, sw Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: Arizona, nw Mexico
Flowering time: MarApr