|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Perennial (rarely biennial); hairs appressed to spreading; caudex generally branched in age, often ± woody, taprooted
Stem ascending or erect
Leaves: lowest generally with petioles ± = blades, ± winged; other leaves generally sessile, becoming bract-like toward inflorescence
Inflorescence: cymes, generally ± terminal, generally > 3, generally arrayed in panicles, coiled at tips
Flower radial; corolla rotate-salverform, with appendage near base of each lobe
Fruit: nutlets erect, > style, generally with lateral-medial scar, generally with barb-tipped prickles on margin and exposed face
Species in genus: 40 species: generally w North America, se Asia
Etymology: (J. Hackel, Czech botanist, born 1783)
Reference: [Gentry & Carr 1976 Mem New York Bot Gard 26:121227]
Difficult genus needing much work, especially in n CA, se Asia; sometimes merged with Lappula
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem 15 dm, slender; hairs generally strongly appressed, strigose in inflorescence
Leaves: caudex 518 cm, 428 mm wide, narrow-elliptic; lower cauline 510 cm, 411 mm wide, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate
Flower: corolla blue, limb 513 mm wide
Fruit: nutlets 34.5 mm, facial prickles 815, < marginal
Ecology: UNCOMMON. In shelter of low junipers
Elevation: 12002000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Modoc Plateau.