Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

link to manual TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993) previous taxon | next taxon
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.



Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.


Dieter H. Wilken and Ronald B. Kelley

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, bristly to strigose
Leaves basal and cauline, linear to lanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: panicle, terminal; branches 3–many, ± spike-like
Flower radial to ± bilateral; calyx deeply lobed; corolla throat straight or slightly curved, lobes equal or unequal; stamens inserted below mid-tube, included or exserted; style exserted
Fruit: nutlet erect, short, ovoid, 3-angled, scar flat
Species in genus: 40 species: s Eurasia, Africa. Cult for ornamental
Etymology: (Greek: viper, from nutlet shape, which resembles viper's head)
Reference: [Bramwell 1972 Lagascalia 2:37–115]


E. candicans L.f.

Shrub 1–3 m
Leaf persistent, 6–20 cm, narrowly elliptic, densely strigose
Inflorescence 3–4 dm; branches many, spreading
Flower ± radial; calyx 3–5 mm; corolla 5–9 mm, blue to violet; stamens all exserted
Fruit: nutlets rough, fine-tubercled
Ecology: Open, dry slopes and bluffs
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to Madeira, Canary Islands
Several species cultivated on CA coast, > 1 probably naturalized, some may be hybrids. Plants with pink to pale blue corollas and nutlets sharply tubercled are called E. strictum L.f. Plants 2–3 m with basal leaf rosette and ± cylindric inflorescence 1+ m are called E. pininana Webb & Berthel
Synonyms: E. fastuosum Aiton misapplied

previous taxon | next taxon
bioregional map for ECHIUM%20candicans being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Echium candicans
Retrieve dichotomous key for Echium
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
Return to the Jepson Interchange main page
Return to treatment index page
  • This page is no longer being maintained.

University & Jepson Herbaria Home Page |
General Information | University Herbarium | Jepson Herbarium |
Visiting the Herbaria | On-line Resources | Research |
Education | Related Sites
Copyright © by the Regents of the University of California