|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Perennial, biennial, ± hairy, taprooted
Leaves entire; basal petioled; cauline petioled or not
Inflorescence: panicle, ± terminal, bracted or not
Flower radial; calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, appendages large; style entire
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, subspheric, covered with short, barbed prickles
Species in genus: 80 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)
Stems 1several, clustered, 1.55 dm; hairs spreading
Leaves harshly hairy; basal petioles 410 cm, winged; blades 515 cm, 14 cm wide, ± oblanceolate, bases tapered; cauline ± many, sessile
Inflorescence held above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 48 mm
Flower: corolla 69 mm, 49 mm wide, funnel-shaped, bluish, tinged rose to brown, appendages whitish
Fruit: nutlets ascending-spreading, outer surfaces rounded, margins not raised
Ecology: Open coniferous forests, often with ponderosa pine
Elevation: 9002100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: w Oregon
Horticultural information: TRY.