This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Perennial, biennial, ± hairy, taprooted
Leaves entire; basal petioled; cauline petioled or not
Inflorescence: panicle, ± terminal, bracted or not
Flower radial; calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, appendages large; style entire
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, subspheric, covered with short, barbed prickles
Species in genus: 80 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: dog tongue)
Stem generally 1, 39 dm; hairs 0
Leaves: lower surfaces hairy, upper surfaces ± glabrous; basal petioles 815 cm, ± unwinged; blades 815 cm, 310 cm wide, ± ovate to elliptic, bases truncate or cordate; cauline few, petioled
Inflorescence held above leaves; bracts scale-like or 0; pedicels 1025 mm
Flower: corolla 812 mm, generally 1015 mm wide, ± salverform, blue, tube often violet, appendages white
Fruit: nutlets ascending-spreading, outer surfaces rounded, margins not raised
Ecology: Shaded or open areas, woodland or chaparral
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills (uncommon), n High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5 &SHD: 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 7, 14.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|