|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, biennial, perennial herb
Stem simple or branched; branches generally ascending to erect, hairy
Leaves strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles (especially lower surface) bulbous-based; basal whorled; cauline generally opposite below, alternate above
Inflorescence generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit, open (flowers in fruit not overlapping or touching side to side) or dense (flowers in fruit overlapping or touching side to side)
Flower: sepals ± free; corolla generally white, tube generally 113 mm, appendages 5, white to yellow, limb 15 mm wide in annual, 612 mm wide in per; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed,
Fruit: nutlets 14, back generally grayish brown, smooth and shiny or granular, tubercled, or rough at 10X , margin rounded, sometimes sharp-edged, groove on inside surface narrow, open to closed, sometimes raised, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base
Species in genus: ± 160 species: w Am
Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some species)
Reference: [Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13(4):163]
Annual species generally self-pollinating; per species homostylous or heterostylous. Many annual species difficult to separate; observation of nutlets and hairs requires magnification at 20X.
Annual 1060 cm
Stem simple to branched throughout, strigose and ± spreading-soft-hairy
Leaf 15 cm, ± linear, generally appressed-hairy, sometimes also fine-bristly
Inflorescence generally dense; lowest flowers sometimes not touching in fruit
Flower: sepals 1.52.5 mm, 36 mm and linear in fruit, strigose and bristly, distal bristles spreading, lower bristles reflexed; corolla limb 16 mm wide
Fruit: nutlet 1(24), ± 1 mm, lanceolate to ovate, back flat, smooth, shiny, generally mottled gray-brown, groove ± closed, sometimes open only at forked base
Ecology: Sandy or rocky (sometimes serpentine) soils, chaparral
Elevation: < 1100 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast, s Inner North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, South Coast, Channel Islands
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Synonyms: var. florosa I.M. Johnst
Plants on serpentine from s NCoRI with corolla limb 46 mm wide have been called var. dissita (I.M. Johnst.) Jeps. & Hoover.