Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.

CRYPTANTHA

Walter A. Kelley and Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, biennial, perennial herb
Stem simple or branched; branches generally ascending to erect, hairy
Leaves strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles (especially lower surface) bulbous-based; basal whorled; cauline generally opposite below, alternate above
Inflorescence generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit, open (flowers in fruit not overlapping or touching side to side) or dense (flowers in fruit overlapping or touching side to side)
Flower: sepals ± free; corolla generally white, tube generally 1–13 mm, appendages 5, white to yellow, limb 1–5 mm wide in annual, 6–12 mm wide in per; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed,
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, back generally grayish brown, smooth and shiny or granular, tubercled, or rough at 10X , margin rounded, sometimes sharp-edged, groove on inside surface narrow, open to closed, sometimes raised, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base
Species in genus: ± 160 species: w Am
Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some species)
Reference: [Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13(4):1–63]
Annual species generally self-pollinating; per species homostylous or heterostylous. Many annual species difficult to separate; observation of nutlets and hairs requires magnification at 20X.

Native

C. barbigera (A. Gray) Greene

Annual 10–50 cm
Stem simple to branched generally below middle, strigose and densely spreading-bristly
Leaf 1–5(8) cm, linear-oblong to narrowly lanceolate; bristles spreading
Inflorescence generally dense to open in fruit
Flower: sepals 4–6 mm, 5–10 mm and narrowly oblanceolate to oblong in fruit, generally spreading-bristly especially at base; corolla tube 3–5 mm, limb 1–2 mm wide
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, 1.5–2 mm, lanceolate to ovate, back white-tubercled, groove ± open, especially at forked base, to slightly flared open at base
Ecology: Open, sandy to rocky soils
Elevation: 300–2250 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Utah, New Mexico, Baja California
Flowering time: Feb–May

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