|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, biennial, perennial herb
Stem simple or branched; branches generally ascending to erect, hairy
Leaves strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles (especially lower surface) bulbous-based; basal whorled; cauline generally opposite below, alternate above
Inflorescence generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit, open (flowers in fruit not overlapping or touching side to side) or dense (flowers in fruit overlapping or touching side to side)
Flower: sepals ± free; corolla generally white, tube generally 113 mm, appendages 5, white to yellow, limb 15 mm wide in annual, 612 mm wide in per; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed,
Fruit: nutlets 14, back generally grayish brown, smooth and shiny or granular, tubercled, or rough at 10X , margin rounded, sometimes sharp-edged, groove on inside surface narrow, open to closed, sometimes raised, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base
Species in genus: ± 160 species: w Am
Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some species)
Reference: [Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13(4):163]
Annual species generally self-pollinating; per species homostylous or heterostylous. Many annual species difficult to separate; observation of nutlets and hairs requires magnification at 20X.
Perennial 320 cm; caudex woody
Stem branched from base, prostrate to ascending, ± strigose
Leaf 1.59 cm, linear to linear-oblanceolate; upper surface ± strigose; lower surface also bulbous-based bristly
Inflorescence generally dense, cylindric; branches 3many, elongate and straight in fruit
Flower: sepals 24 mm, 47 mm in fruit, hairs generally soft, bristles few; corolla tube 24 mm, limb 59 mm wide, throat generally yellow
Fruit: nutlets 14, 1.52.5 mm, ± ovate, slightly curved inward, back smooth, groove closed, edges overlapping
Ecology: Common. Sandy soils
Elevation: 18003300 m.
Bioregional distribution: East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: s Nevada
Flowering time: MayAug
Synonyms: C. jamesii (Torr.) Payson var. a. (Greene) Payson
Other vars. in Great Basin, Rocky Mtns
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.