Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.



Dieter H. Wilken

Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Latin: rough, from hairs)


A. procumbens L.

Annual, bristly; hairs curved to reflexed, base bulbous
Stem prostrate to weakly decumbent, 3–8 dm, much-branched, angled
Leaves simple, ± cauline, opposite at base, alternate above, petioled to sessile above; blades 2–7 cm, oblanceolate to elliptic
Inflorescence axillary; flowers 1–2; pedicels reflexed in fruit
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, 2–3 mm in flower, compressed in fruit, 5–8 mm, 10–15 mm wide, papery, with 1–2 teeth per lobe, enclosing nutlets; corolla = calyx, purplish; stamens included, anthers sessile
Fruit: nutlets 2–4, 2–3 mm, compressed, ovoid in outline, shiny, minutely tubercled, scar lateral
Chromosomes: 2n=48
Ecology: Disturbed areas, roadsides, ditches
Elevation: 1000–1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: widespread US; native to e&c Europe

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