Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

BETULACEAE

BIRCH FAMILY

John O. Sawyer, Jr.

Tree, shrub, monoecious
Stem: trunk < 35 m; bark ± smooth; lenticels present
Leaves simple, alternate, petioled, deciduous; stipules deciduous; blade ovate to elliptic, generally serrate, ± doubly so
Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, often clustered; bracts each subtending 2–3 flowers and 3–6 bractlets
Staminate inflorescence pendent, ± elongate
Pistillate inflorescence pendent or erect, developing variously in fruit (see key to genera)
Staminate flower: sepals 0–4, minute; petals 0; stamens 1–10; pistil vestigial or 0
Pistillate flower: sepals 0–4; petals 0; stamens 0; pistil 1, ovary inferior, chambers 2, each 1-ovuled, stigmas 2
Fruit: nut or nutlet, sometimes winged, subtended or enclosed by 1–2 bracts
Genera in family: 6 genera, 105 species: generally n hemisphere; some cultivated.

CORYLUS

HAZELNUT, FILBERT

Shrub, small tree
Stem: trunk < 6 m; bark smooth or scaly, dark brown; twigs glandular-hairy, becoming glabrous, brown; lenticels small; winter buds ciliate
Leaf hairy; blade 4–10 cm, oblong to ovate, base obliquely cordate
Staminate inflorescence 4–7 cm; bracts each subtending 3 flowers and 3 bractlets
Pistillate inflorescence < 1 cm, appearing as terminal bud; bracts each subtending 2 flowers and 6 bractlets
Staminate flower: sepals 0; stamens 4
Pistillate flower: sepals 4; stigmas showy, red
Fruit 2–3 cm, not winged, 1–2 per catkin, each enclosed in a papery involucre of 2 fused bracts
Species in genus: 15 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: hazelnut, filbert)
Flexible stems used in basket-making; some cultivated as food crop.

Native

C. cornuta Marshall var. californica (A. DC.) W.M. Sharp


Stem: trunks < 4 m
Leaf: petiole 5–10 mm; blade ± velvety-hairy, base cordate, tip acute to acuminate
Fruit: involucre vase-shaped
Ecology: Common. Many habitats, especially moist, shady places
Elevation: < 2100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Horticultural information: 4, 5, 6, 17 IRR: 7, 15, 16, 23, 24 &SHD: 1, 2, 3, 8, 14, 18, 19, 20; STBL; edible nuts.

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