Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

BETULACEAE

BIRCH FAMILY

John O. Sawyer, Jr.

Tree, shrub, monoecious
Stem: trunk < 35 m; bark ± smooth; lenticels present
Leaves simple, alternate, petioled, deciduous; stipules deciduous; blade ovate to elliptic, generally serrate, ± doubly so
Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, often clustered; bracts each subtending 2–3 flowers and 3–6 bractlets
Staminate inflorescence pendent, ± elongate
Pistillate inflorescence pendent or erect, developing variously in fruit (see key to genera)
Staminate flower: sepals 0–4, minute; petals 0; stamens 1–10; pistil vestigial or 0
Pistillate flower: sepals 0–4; petals 0; stamens 0; pistil 1, ovary inferior, chambers 2, each 1-ovuled, stigmas 2
Fruit: nut or nutlet, sometimes winged, subtended or enclosed by 1–2 bracts
Genera in family: 6 genera, 105 species: generally n hemisphere; some cultivated.
Retrieve key for BETULACEAE
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