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BERBERIDACEAE

BARBERRY FAMILY

Michael P. Williams

Perennial, shrub, generally from rhizomes; caudex sometimes present, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy
Stems spreading to erect, branched or not
Leaves simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary
Flower: sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12, free or fused at base, 2-whorled or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric
Fruit: berry, capsule, or achene
Genera in family: 16 genera, ± 670 species: temp, tropical worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (Heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria )
Reference: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]

VANCOUVERIA

Perennial from scaly rhizomes
Stem generally erect, short, underground
Leaves basal, long-petioled, 1–2-ternate; 1° divisions sometimes pinnately compound; leaflets ovate to ± cordate, base ± lobed
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, ± scapose, open, long-peduncled; flowers spreading to pendulent
Flower: sepals generally 12–15, 8–9 mm, outer 6–9 << inner 6, bract-like, deciduous, inner petal-like, persistent, becoming reflexed; petals 6, < inner sepals, reflexed, distally glandular; stamens generally 6, anther valves flap-like, pointed tipward; ovules 2–10, style 1, < ovary, persistent, beak-like in fruit, stigma cup-like
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved, generally elliptic
Species in genus: 3 species: temp w North America
Etymology: (Captain George Vancouver, British explorer, 1757–1798)
Reference: [Stearn 1938 J Linn Soc Bot 51:409–535]

Native

V. planipetala Calloni

REDWOOD IVY


Leaf 10–30 cm; upper surface glabrous; lower surface glabrous to sparsely hairy; petiole sparsely hairy, becoming glabrous, reddish brown
Inflorescence: panicle; upper axis short-glandular-hairy: pedicel short-glandular-hairy in lower 1/3
Flower: outer sepals 2–4 mm; inner sepals 4–5 mm; petals 3–4 mm, white or tinged lavender, tip flat, notched; filaments glabrous
Fruit: body 5–7 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Coastal coniferous forest
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Mtns)
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Horticultural information: SHD: 4, 5, 6 &IRR: 7, 14, 15, 16, 17; slow, GRCVR.

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