|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, shrub, generally from rhizomes; caudex sometimes present, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy
Stems spreading to erect, branched or not
Leaves simple, 13-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary
Flower: sepals 618 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 612, free or fused at base, 2-whorled or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 110, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric
Fruit: berry, capsule, or achene
Genera in family: 16 genera, ± 670 species: temp, tropical worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (Heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria )
Reference: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:135]
Shrub, generally from rhizomes
Stems spreading to erect, branching, spiny or not, sometimes vine-like; inner bark, wood generally bright yellow; bud bracts deciduous or persistent
Leaves simple or pinnately compound, cauline, alternate, deciduous or evergreen; leaflets generally 311, ± round to lanceolate, generally spine-toothed
Inflorescence: raceme, axillary or terminal
Flower: sepals 9 in 3 whorls of 3; petals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, base generally glandular; stamens 6, anther valves pointed down to ± spreading; ovules 29, stigma ± spheric
Fruit: berry, spheric to elliptic, generally purple-black
Species in genus: ± 600 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: ancient Arabic name for barberry)
[see Moran 1982 Phytologia 52:221226 for relationship between Berberis and Mahonia ] Roots often TOXIC; spines may inject fungal spores into skin.
Stems erect, reclining on tree branches, or vine-like, 0.48 m; bud bracts generally deciduous
Leaves cauline, not crowded, 920 cm; petiole 13 cm; leaflets generally 711, 37 cm, 24.5 cm wide, ovate to widely elliptic, wavy, base slightly lobed to truncate, tip acute to obtuse except tooth, dentate to serrate, sometimes entire, spine-tipped teeth 1523, 12 mm
Inflorescence 34 cm, dense; axis internodes 24 mm in flower
Fruit 68 mm diam, ovoid to obovoid, glaucous, blue-purple
Seeds 34 mm
Ecology: Rocky slopes, coniferous forest, oak woodland
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Central Western California, n Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California
Relationship to B. aquifolium needs study.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stems reclining or vine-like, 28 m
Leaf: leaflets dentate, serrate, or subentire
Inflorescence 37.5 cm
Ecology: Closed-cone-pine forest
Elevation: < 400 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Channel Islands
Synonyms: Mahonia p. (Lag.) Fedde subsp. i. (Munz) Roof
Horticultural information: In cultivation.