Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

PINACEAE

PINE FAMILY

James R. Griffin

Tree or shrub, monoecious, evergreen
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent
Leaves simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; bases decurrent, sometimes woody, persistent several years
Pollen cone generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous
Seed cone generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract
Seeds 2, on upper side of scale base
Genera in family: 10 genera, 193 species: mostly n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > half of world's timber
Reference: [Price 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:247–305]

TSUGA

HEMLOCK


Stem: crown conic, top slender, generally nodding; branches ± drooping; bark reddish brown; twig hairy or puberulent, leaf bases ascending, wedge- or scale-like, persistent; bud ovoid
Leaves 5–25 mm, tapered to a short petiole above persistent base, spreading, ± 2-ranked or not, ± flat, sometimes grooved on upper surface, ridged on lower
Seed cone pendent, 1.2–7.5 cm, ovoid to oblong, opening 1st season; stalk ± 0; bract included, free from scale
Seed plus wing < 2 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: 10 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Japanese: hemlock)

Native

T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.

WESTERN HEMLOCK


Stem: trunk < 50 m, < 2.7 m wide; mature bark thin, reddish brown, with narrow grooves between broad ridges; twig hairy
Leaf 5–20 mm, persistent 4–7 years; tip blunt to rounded
Ecology: Scattered in n coastal conifer to mixed-evergreen forests
Elevation: generally < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Montana
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 3, 7, 14; CVS.

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