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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

DRYOPTERIDACEAE

WOOD FERN FAMILY

Alan R. Smith and Thomas Lemieux

Perennial, in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, suberect, or erect, scales large, generally tan to brown, generally 1-colored
Leaves generally tufted, 5–200+ cm, generally ± alike; petiole generally firm, base generally darker, with 2–many vascular strands; blade 1–4-pinnate, often with scales, hair-like scales, hairs (except clear, needle-like hairs generally 0), or short-stalked glands on axes, sometimes between veins, veins free to netted; 1° and 2° axes generally grooved on upper side
Sporangia: sori round, less often oblong or J-shaped, along or at tips of veins; indusia peltate, round-reniform, oblong to linear, J-shaped, hood-like, or cup-like, rarely 0; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, > 1000 species: worldwide, especially tropical, wooded areas. Woodsia sometimes in Woodsiaceae; Athyrium, Cystopteris sometimes in Athyriaceae.

POLYSTICHUM

SWORD FERN

Rhizome generally suberect to erect, often stout
Leaf: petiole stout, firm, generally densely scaly, in X -section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade generally 1–3-pinnate, thin to leathery, scaly, veins generally free, rarely casually joined; 1° leaflet bases often wider on distal side; teeth generally including bristle-like tips that are < 2 mm
Sporangia: sori round; indusium generally peltate, sinus 0
Species in genus: ± 175+ species: ± worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: many rows, from rows of sori on type sp.)

Native

P. scopulinum (D.C. Eaton) Maxon


Leaf 10–50 cm; petiole 1/4–1/2 blade length, base scales 1.5–2(3) mm wide, lanceolate to elliptic; blade narrow-lanceolate 1- to partly 2-pinnate; 1° leaflets generally 1–3 cm, oblong-lanceolate, lowest ± lanceolate, longest 1.5–3 cm
Sporangia: indusium entire
Chromosomes: 2n=164
Ecology: Serpentine to acidic soils, generally full sun, rock crevices, boulder bases
Elevation: 400–3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau, Desert Mountains (Surprise Canyon, Panamint Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Rocky Mtns, Arizona
Probably fertile hybrid between P. imbricans and P. lemmonii. DMtns distribution based on an RSA herbarium specimen, Rompert 229, 1977; this specimen differs from others in the range in having lflts only shallowly, if at all, lobed
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6 &IRR, SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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