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DRYOPTERIDACEAE

WOOD FERN FAMILY

Alan R. Smith and Thomas Lemieux

Perennial, in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, suberect, or erect, scales large, generally tan to brown, generally 1-colored
Leaves generally tufted, 5–200+ cm, generally ± alike; petiole generally firm, base generally darker, with 2–many vascular strands; blade 1–4-pinnate, often with scales, hair-like scales, hairs (except clear, needle-like hairs generally 0), or short-stalked glands on axes, sometimes between veins, veins free to netted; 1° and 2° axes generally grooved on upper side
Sporangia: sori round, less often oblong or J-shaped, along or at tips of veins; indusia peltate, round-reniform, oblong to linear, J-shaped, hood-like, or cup-like, rarely 0; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, > 1000 species: worldwide, especially tropical, wooded areas. Woodsia sometimes in Woodsiaceae; Athyrium, Cystopteris sometimes in Athyriaceae.

DRYOPTERIS

WOOD FERN

Rhizome short-creeping or ascending to suberect, stout
Leaf: petiole > 1.5 mm wide, firm, more densely scaly than midrib, base in X -section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade 1–3-pinnate or more, veins free, simple or forked; segments deeply pinnately lobed or not
Sporangia: sori round; indusium round-reniform, ± centrally attached at a sinus, generally persistent
Species in genus: ± 100 species: ± worldwide, especially eastern Asia
Etymology: (Greek: oak, fern)
Hybrids unknown in CA, frequent in eastern North America
Reference: [Montgomery & Paulton 1981 Fiddlehead Forum 8:25–31]

Native

D. filix-mas (L.) Schott

MALE FERN


Leaf ± 40–70(100+) cm, 15–25(30+) cm wide; petiole, midrib nonglandular; blade elliptic, 2-pinnate, segments deeply pinnately lobed or not, teeth ± without bristle-like tips, veins generally ending short of margin; longest 1° leaflets near middle, rarely near base; scales of 1° leaflet midribs ± linear or hair-like
Chromosomes: 2n=164
Ecology: Granitic cliffs
Elevation: 2400–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Bernardino Mountains, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, ne N.America, Europe, Africa
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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