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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Jim A. Bartel

Shrub, tree, evergreen, monoecious or dioecious
Leaves cauline, opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, generally scale-like, decurrent, completely covering young stems
Pollen cone small, axillary or terminal
Seed cone ± fleshy to woody, generally hard at maturity; scales opposite or whorled
Seeds 1–many per scale, generally angled or winged, generally wind-dispersed
Genera in family: 17 genera, ± 120 species: worldwide; all North America genera cultivated
Reference: [Elias 1980 Complete Trees North America]
Juvenile leaves needle- or awl-like, sometimes present in ± mature plants, especially in response to grazing or infection, especially in Cupressus, Juniperus.



Shrub, tree, generally dioecious
Stem: bark thin, peeling in strips; young shoots 4-angled to cylindric
Leaves opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, scale-like to less often awl- or needle-like
Pollen cone: pollen sacs 2–6 per scale
Seed cone 5–18 mm, ± fleshy, berry-like, glaucous or not, dry or resinous, sweet, formed by fusion of scales, ± spheric, surrounded at base by minute scale-like bracts, generally maturing 2nd year; scales 3–8, opposite or whorled in 3's
Seeds 1–3(12) per cone, ± flat, unwinged, often not angled, generally animal-dispersed over 2 years; cotyledons 2–6
Species in genus: ± 60 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: juniper)
Reference: [Vasek 1966 Brittonia 18:350–372]


J. occidentalis Hook.

Tree 5–15 m
Stem: bark brown to red-brown
Leaves opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, closely appressed, scale-like
Pollen cone 2–3 mm, oblong
Seed cone 5–12 mm, blue-green maturing blue-black, resinous
Seeds 2–3 per cone, 6 mm, ovoid, acute, grooved or pitted
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats, forests, woodlands
Elevation: 100–3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, w Nevada


var. occidentalis


Generally ± monoecious
Stem: bark brown
Leaves opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked
Seed cone 7–12 mm
Seed: cotyledons generally 2
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats, sagebrush, juniper woodlands
Elevation: 700–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, nw Nevada
Horticultural information: DRN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 24 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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