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CUPRESSACEAE

CYPRESS FAMILY

Jim A. Bartel

Shrub, tree, evergreen, monoecious or dioecious
Leaves cauline, opposite and 4-ranked or whorled in 3's and 6-ranked, generally scale-like, decurrent, completely covering young stems
Pollen cone small, axillary or terminal
Seed cone ± fleshy to woody, generally hard at maturity; scales opposite or whorled
Seeds 1–many per scale, generally angled or winged, generally wind-dispersed
Genera in family: 17 genera, ± 120 species: worldwide; all North America genera cultivated
Reference: [Elias 1980 Complete Trees North America]
Juvenile leaves needle- or awl-like, sometimes present in ± mature plants, especially in response to grazing or infection, especially in Cupressus, Juniperus.

CUPRESSUS

CYPRESS

Large shrub, tree, often pyramidal in youth, monoecious
Stem: young shoots generally cylindric (sometimes 4-angled or flat), generally arrayed in 3-dimensional clusters
Leaves opposite, 4-ranked, scale-like, closely appressed, overlapping
Pollen cone generally yellow
Seed cone 6–50 mm, woody, ± spheric to widely cylindric, maturing 1st or 2nd year, often closed > 2 years; scales 6–12, peltate, abutting, shield- or wedge-shaped; projection often present, small, pointed, generally less visible in age
Seeds 2–many per scale, flat, winged; cotyledons 2–5
Chromosomes: 2n=22 for all reports
Species in genus: ± 22 species: w North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin: cypress)
Reference: [Wolf 1948 Aliso 1:1–250]

Native

C. arizonica Greene

Tree 5–25 m
Stem: bark partially peeling in thin strips or plates to fibrous (especially in age), smooth to furrowed, cherry-red to brown to gray; youngest shoots 1–2 mm diam, 4-sided
Leaf dusty gray-green, glaucous or not, appearing blue-green, glandular, often resin-covered
Pollen cone 2–5 mm, 2 mm diam, ± cylindric to 4-sided; scales 8–16; pollen sacs 3–6 per scale
Seed cone 10–35 mm, spheric to ovoid, often warty, dull gray to brown; scales 4–8, projection 0–4 mm
Seed 3–8 mm, light tan to dark brown, slightly warty, often glaucous; attachment scar conspicuous or not
Ecology: Pinyon/juniper or oak/pine woodland, chaparral
Elevation: 750–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada (Kern, Tulare cos.), Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Arizona, n Baja California, n&c Mexico

Native

subsp. arizonica

CUYAMACA or ARIZONA CYPRESS

Tree 10–16 m
Stem: bark smooth, thin, peeling in thin strips or plates, cherry-red
Leaf: glands generally inactive, sometimes inconspicuous or 0
Pollen cone: pollen sacs 3–6 per scale
Seed cone 10–25 mm, spheric, dull gray to brown; scale projection 2–4 mm, often conspicuous, conic
Seed 4–8 mm, dark brown, generally not glaucous
Chromosomes: 2n=22(23,24)
Ecology: Chaparral
Elevation: 900–1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Peninsular Ranges (Cuyamaca Mtns)
Distribution outside California: Arizona, n Baja California, n&c Mexico
Synonyms: var. glabra (Sudw.) Little; var. revealiana J. Silba; C. stephensonii C. Wolf
Widely planted as windbreak.

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