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LYTHRACEAE LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY

Shirley A. Graham

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: 4-angled or cylindric. Leaf: simple, entire, generally opposite, 4-ranked (alternate, whorled). Inflorescence: flowers terminal or in axils of upper leaves or leaf-like bracts, 1 or in ± dense cymes or along short shoots, sessile or not, subtended by [0]2 bractlets. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, membranous or leathery, persistent in fruit; sepals appearing as hypanthium lobes, 4–9, epicalyx lobes alternate sepals or 0; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4–6 or 0, alternate sepals, crinkled, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 × sepals, included or exserted; ovary generally superior, chambers 2–6[many], style generally slender, stigma head-like. Fruit: dry capsule or leathery berry, dehiscent into 2–4 valves or irregularly. Seed: 3–many.
± 28 genera, 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes. [Graham et al. 2005 Int J Plant Sci 166:995–1017] "Epicalyx lobes" (lobes on calyx) formerly called "appendages," "hypanthium" in Lythraceae (and Onagraceae) including receptacle, sometimes called "flower cup" or "flower tube". Punicaceae (Punica) included here. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Lythraceae

AMMANNIA
Annual. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched or not, glabrous. Leaf: opposite, sessile, linear to lanceolate [oblanceolate], with basal ear-like lobes. Inflorescence: axillary 1–5(14)-flowered cymes. Flower: radial, hypanthium bell- to urn-shaped, 4–8-ribbed; sepals 4, epicalyx lobes <= sepals, horn-like, thick; petals (0)4, obovate; stamens 4(5–12), exserted (included); style long, slender [short, stocky]. Fruit: capsule, ± spheric, wall smooth, not striate at 10×, thin, dry, splitting irregularly. Seed: many, ± 1 mm.
± 25 species: temperate, tropics. (Paul Ammann, German botanist, 1634–1691) [Graham et al. 2011 Bot J Linn Soc 166:1–19]
Unabridged etymology: (Paul Ammann, 1634–1691, director of medical garden, University of Leipzig, author of flora of Leipzig area, 1675)

Key to Ammannia

Previous taxon: Lythraceae
Next taxon: Ammannia coccinea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ammannia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9914, accessed on Oct 21 2014

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