Directory       News       Site Map       Home
         
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon

BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

PHACELIA

Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen

Annual to perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, taprooted or from ± thick caudex. Leaf: generally cauline, generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally ± reduced upward. Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally <= 5 mm, generally straight. Flower: sepals generally 5, generally fused at base, generally equal, generally ± alike, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, at least some persistent and withering in fruit in some species, rotate to tubular or bell- or funnel-shaped, ± white, blue, purple, pink or yellow, tube and throat not always clearly differentiated, generally glabrous inside, scales of tube base 0 or free from or fused to filament bases, generally white, nectary gland on petal midvein generally 0, each petal with generally 0, sometimes 2–many translucent areas, 2 or 4 of which parallel; stamens generally attached at same level, generally equal, generally exserted, bases generally not wider, with 2 or generally 0 wings, filaments generally white, pollen generally tan; ovary chamber 1, sometimes appearing as 2 due to intrusion of the 2 placentas, placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy proximal to lobes, disk proximal to ovary generally inconspicuous. Fruit: capsule, oblong to spheric, generally rounded at base, generally beaked. Seed: 1–many (number sometimes due to ovule abortion), oblong to spheric, generally brown; abaxially generally pitted or cross-furrowed.
± 210 species: America; some cultivated for ornamental. (Greek: cluster, from dense inflorescence) Dermatitis caused by contact with hairs, especially glandular, of P. campanularia, P. crenulata, P. ixodes, P. minor, P. parryi, P. pedicellata (Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44). [Hansen et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:737–746; Walden & Patterson 2012 Madroño 59:211–222] Some California per species intergrade, hybridize, difficult to distinguish. Phacelia ixodes Kellogg, included in TJM (1993), not known from California. Since TJM2, Phacelia dalesiana J.T. Howell transferred to Howellanthus as Howellanthus dalesianus (J.T. Howell) Walden & R. Patt. Regarding indument in this treatment: minute (for e.g., puberulent) < 0.2 mm; short = 0.2–2 mm; long > 2 mm.
Unabridged references: [Gilbert et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:627–634; Reynolds et al. 1986 Contact Dermatitis 14:39–44; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1979 Phytochemistry 18:1567–1568; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981a Phytochemistry 20:1365–1366; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1981b Planta Medica 43:187–193; Reynolds & Rodriguez 1986 Phytochemistry 25:1617–1619.]

Key to Phacelia

P. imbricata Greene (Group 1)
NATIVE
Perennial herb 20–120 cm. Stem: ± stiff-hairy, often glandular. Leaf: mostly basal; blade 50–150 mm, >= petiole, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, dissected, veins of basal leaves prominent; distal sometimes entire. Flower: calyx lobes ± overlapping in fruit, 3–6 mm, 5–10 mm in fruit, ± not alike, especially in fruit, lanceolate or ovate to obovate; corolla 4–7 mm, cylindric to bell-shaped, white to lavender, scales fused to filament bases, oblong; stamens 9–13 mm, hairy; style 9–14 mm, cleft 1/2. Fruit: 3–4 mm, narrowly ovoid, stiff-hairy. Seed: 1(2–3), 2–2.5 mm, pitted in ± longitudinal rows.
n=11,22. [Online Interchange]

P. imbricata var. patula (Brand) Walden & R. Patt.
NATIVE
Stem: decumbent to erect, 20–80 cm. Leaf: segments 3–7. Inflorescence: panicle-like, open. Flower: outer calyx lobes lanceolate, not glandular.
Slopes, roadsides, flats, canyons, chaparral, woodland; 750–2600 m. San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges; Baja California. [Phacelia imbricata Greene subsp. patula (Brand) Heckard] May–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Phacelia imbricata var. imbricata
Next taxon: Phacelia insularis

Contact/Feedback

Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Phacelia, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=98694, accessed on Apr 17 2014

Copyright © 2013 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.


Bioregions in which Phacelia imbricata var. patula occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
View elevation by latitude chart Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

 

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.