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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, or subshrub, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: simple, ± basal, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: scapose umbel, subtended by involucre. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in 4s or 5s (6s); calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes erect or spreading to reflexed; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head- or dot-like. Fruit: capsule, 2–7-valved or circumscissile. Seed: small, few to many.
± 8 genera, 600 species: northern hemisphere; several ornamental (Primula). [Martins et al. 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237:75–85] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) moved to Myrsinaceae, and Samolus to Theophrastaceae; based on the same evidence, Primulaceae has been treated alternatively to include all of Myrsinaceae and Theophrastaceae. Taxa of Dodecatheon in TJM2 treated here in Primula. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183; Martins et al. 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237:75–85; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has led to new understanding of relationships in Ericales. As treated here, non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that family and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and — for woody members — wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a recent segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. A more recently proposed, alternative taxonomy treats all members of that large clade within an expanded Primulaceae.
Key to Primulaceae
Perennial herb or subshrub, from rhizome, stolon, or caudex, glabrous or glandular-hairy. Leaf: blade entire or toothed. Flower: erect to spreading or nodding; generally homostylous; sepals erect or reflexed in flower, erect in fruit, persistent; corolla salverform or funnel-shaped with well-developed tube, including anthers, and erect to spreading, notched lobes, or rotate with very short tube, prominently exerted anthers, and reflexed, entire lobes, proximally white and/or yellow and/or dark purple, distally white, lavender, pink, or purple; filaments generally very short, including anthers free, oblong, exerted anthers on generally wide, often fused filaments, erect, generally ± lanceolate, generally ± adherent into a cone around style; ovary superior, style slender, ± exserted beyond anthers, stigma head- or dot-like. Fruit: ± 5-valved or circumscissile, ovoid or oblong-ovoid to cylindric.Key to Primula
± 470 species: generally northern temperate. (Latin: diminutive of first, from early flower) [Mast & Reveal 2007 Brittonia 59:79–82] Dodecatheon, a monophyletic taxon closest to Primula subg. Auriculastrum, recently treated in that subg. as sect. Dodecatheon (Mast & Reveal 2007); taxa treated in Dodecatheon in TJM2 treated in Primula here. Polyploid group; species often intergrade; "anther connective" refers to tissue between pollen sacs, especially near base; dehiscence must be determined on fruit that has aged and dried naturally, because e.g., green fruit of circumscissile taxa (e.g., Primula clevelandii) sometimes split longitudinally as a result of pressing and thereby may appear valved.
Unabridged references: [Thompson 1953 Contr Dudley Herb 4:73–154; Mast et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91: 926–942]
Plant glabrous to glandular-hairy; roots with rice-like bulblets at flower. Stem: 12–48 cm. Leaf: 2–16 cm; blade elliptic to ovate or obovate, generally narrowed abruptly to petiole, entire to ± toothed. Inflorescence: 3–17-flowered. Flower: parts in 4s or 5s, even on same plant; corolla lobes 6–23 mm, magenta to deep lavender or white; filament tube 1–3 mm, anthers 3–5 mm, connective transversely wrinkled, dark maroon to black; stigma ± not enlarged. Fruit: circumscissile.
n=22,33,66. Generally in shady sites; < 1900 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Central Western California, San Bernardino Mountains; to southern British Columbia, Idaho. [Dodecatheon hendersonii A. Gray] Highly variable; possibly hybridizes with Primula clevelandii. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Primula fragrans
Next taxon: Primula jeffreyi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Primula, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=98398, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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