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SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

TOLMIEA PIG-A-BACK PLANT

Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis & Walter S. Judd

Plant ± hairy, glandular; rhizome scaly; bulblets 0. Leaf: basal and cauline, basal 8–38 cm (including petiole), distal reduced; stipules 3–8 mm, elliptic, leaf-like, with irregular teeth and short bristles; blade 2–11.5 cm wide, ovate, base generally cordate, sometimes bearing plantlets, lobes shallow, teeth sharp. Inflorescence: raceme, 10–80 cm; bracts scale-like. Flower: bilateral; hypanthium free of ovary; calyx cleft between lower 2 lobes, upper 3 larger; petals 4, 8–12 mm, thread-like, brown-purple; stamens 3, opposite 3 upper sepals; pistil 1, ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal. Fruit: capsule. Seed: spiny.
2 species: western North America. (W.F. Tolmie, Hudson's Bay Company physician, Fort Vancouver, 1812–1886) [Judd et al. 2007 Brittonia 59: 217–225]

Previous taxon: Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata
Next taxon: Tolmiea diplomenziesii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tolmiea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9771, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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