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NITRARIACEAE NITRARIA FAMILY

Duncan M. Porter

Perennial herb [shrub], fleshy. Stem: branched. Leaf: alternate, simple to irregularly divided, occasionally toothed or lobed; stipules minute or leaf-like. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [or in cymes]. Flower: radial, bisexual; sepals 3–5; petals 3–5; stamens (10)15; ovary superior, chambers 2–6, each with [1,6] many ovules, style at tip or basal. Fruit: capsule [berry, drupe].
4 genera, 16 species: generally ± arid regions, northern hemisphere, Australia. [The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2003 Bot J Linn Soc 141:399–436] Based on molecular, anatomical, and morphological evidence, The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003) indicates that Peganum and Nitraria, sometimes placed in Zygophyllaceae, are widely separated from Zygophyllaceae sensu stricto, and probably should be placed in a different family, in a different order (Sapindales) than Zygophyllaceae (Zygophyllales). —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

PEGANUM HARMAL
Plant < 1 m; branches, leaves dense. Stem: from woody rhizome, herbaceous. Leaf: alternate, deeply, irregularly 2-ternately or ternately-pinnately lobed, fleshy; lobes 2–6 cm, linear, acute to abruptly soft pointed; stipules 1–4 mm, bristle- or leaf-like, deciduous or not. Flower: sepals 4–5, leaf-like, entire to irregularly, deeply pinnately lobed, persistent, linear or lobes linear, acute to abruptly soft pointed; petals 4–5, white to yellow; stamens 12–15, filaments linear, bases dilated; ovary spheric, chambers (2)3(4), each many-ovuled. Fruit: capsule ± spheric, leathery, irregularly loculicidal; chambers (2)3(4); style persisting as beak > fruit body. Seed: many per chamber, triangular, dark, curved.
3 species: deserts, North America, northern Africa, Spain; to China; Mongolia. (Name used by Theophrastus for "rues")

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Peganum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9717, accessed on Aug 23 2014

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