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Perennial herb, submersed aquatic; overwintering on bottom as detached, dense shoot tips (winter buds); roots 0; monoecious; water-pollinated. Stem: flexible with water currents, internodes clustered near tip. Leaf: whorled, generally compound, forked; segments linear, toothed; stipules 0; petiole 1–2 mm, translucent. Inflorescence: reduced axillary cymes generally near shoot tips, ± sessile, 1–several per node, generally staminate below, pistillate above, or sometimes mixed at a node; flowers 1–3 per cyme but appearing to be 1 subtended by calyx-like whorl of 8–15 bracts, bracts linear, leaf-like, fused at base, toothed at tip, persistent in fruit. Flower: unisexual; perianth 0; staminate round-topped, stamens 3–50, spirally arranged, anthers ± sessile, exserted from bracts, pollen shed underwater; pistillate of 1 simple, ovoid pistil, ovary superior, chamber 1; placenta pendulous; style elongate, spine-like, with decurrent groove; stigma pocket-like, at style base; ovule 1. Fruit: achene, tubercled or not, spines 0 or elongate, basal, facial, marginal or stylar; lateral margin winged or not.
1 genus, 6 species: ± worldwide. [Les 1997 FNANM 3:81–84] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
(Greek: horn leaf, for antler-like appearance) Ceratophyllum grown as ornamental or for oxygen generation in aquaria, garden ponds. Leaves, fruit eaten by migrating waterfowl. Vigorous growth (even of native species) can result in weedy infestations.
Previous taxon: Ceratophyllaceae
Next taxon: Ceratophyllum demersum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 22 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ceratophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9657, accessed on May 22 2015
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